* * * This is NOT a job offer * * *|
The purpose of this occupational guide is to provide you with useful information to help you make career decisions.
If you are searching for a job, please go to
More Occupational Guides
THE JOB ENOLOGISTS direct and coordinate wine production activities. This involves crushing, fermentation, clarification, aging, blending, and bottling. Working either in their own firm's vineyards, or with viticulturists of other, grape-supplying vineyards, Enologists examine grape samples to judge sweetness and acidity, to verify sound condition and lack of pesticide residue, and to authenticate grape varieties. They decide when to start the harvest and ensure that grapes are trucked to the crusher quickly and safely. Enologists supervise workers in the crushing and fermentation process, following legal and regulatory practices and record-keeping requirements. In smaller operations, they may do these processing duties themselves. The process of aging and clearing wine of fermentation residue is handled by the cellar supervisor under the direction of the Enologist. Blending, however, is the main responsibility of the Enologist. They blend wines according to formulas and knowledge and experience in wine making. Enologists also oversee bottling to ensure that all goes smoothly, and seek to improve bottling methods and techniques. In some wineries, the title of Enologist is not necessarily a synonym for Wine Maker. Job duties of Enologists are often related to the size of the winery. In large wineries, the major work of Enologists may be as laboratory technicians, directing Research and experimental work and supervising bottling line quality control. In these wineries, Enologists may also have specialized duties involving the responsibility for a specific kind of wine such as table wine or dessert wine. Those who direct and coordinate wine production, develop vineyard sites, etc., are often referred to as Wine Makers or Assistant Wine Makers. Enologists may be engaged in product improvement or new product development. In cooperation with viticulturists, Enologists may select new areas for additional plantings and investigate new grape varieties. They may also do public relations work. WORKING CONDITIONS Enologists divide their time between a pleasant, well-ordered laboratory and the wine cellars. Most cellars are kept cool throughout the year, at temperatures between 55 and 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Because cleanliness is a necessity, cellars are washed regularly; this makes for a cool, damp setting. Most cellars cover a considerable area and are often built on different levels. Enologists must be in good physical condition to work in such surroundings. Enologists may also spend some time outdoors in pleasant surroundings working with the viticulturists or vineyard manager. Because the work requires a keen sense of taste and smell, allergies could be a serious handicap to Enologists. They must also maintain an awareness of chemical hazards and laboratory safety. EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK The following information is from the California Projections of Employment published by the Labor Market Information Division. The figures represent the broad occupational group Industrial Production Managers, which includes Enologists. Estimated number of workers in 1993 25,470 Estimated number of workers in 2005 26,060 Projected Growth 1993-2005 2% Estimated openings due to separations by 2005 6,640 (These figures do not include self-employment or openings due to turnover.) Job opportunities for Enologists are tied to trends in the wine industry. By the mid-l980s, rapid expansion in the industry had created a need for trained Enologists and an interest in the occupation. At that time, Enologists entering the labor market had little difficulty finding employment. At the same time, enrollments in college degree programs in enology increased considerably. However, the number of students in enology programs has dropped as industry growth and the resulting need for more Enologists have slowed. Graduates sometimes find it difficult to locate the jobs they prefer. During the forecast period, available job opportunities for Enologists will result more from the need to replace retired or promoted workers than from any expansion in the industry. WAGES, HOURS, AND FRINGE BENEFITS The median wage for Industrial Production Managers in California is $25.65 per hour. Enologists, however, (especially those just starting out in the profession) tend to earn less than that hourly figure. Salary levels depend on the size of the winery and education and experience of Enologists. Well- qualified individuals with ample experience may exceed $5,000 a month in the larger wineries. A 40-hour week is usual; but during harvest season overtime may be expected, with compensatory time off during slack periods. Most wineries include sick leave, vacation, retirement, and health insurance plans as part of the employee benefit package. Some of the larger wineries have profit-sharing or stock-purchase plans. Housing and discounts on wines are also provided at some facilities. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS AND TRAINING The basic requirement for entry into the occupation is a bachelor of science degree with a specialization in enology. Some wineries will hire persons whose major has been in another field, such as food technology or chemistry, provided courses in enology have been included in the program. Training in business and public speaking are also valuable background for prospective Enologists. Wineries prefer to hire applicants with one to three years of experience in the wine industry. Summer work and internships in wineries during college help to satisfy this requirement. Enologists' work also requires mental and emotional stability to handle responsibility and to make decisions for the long-term and on an emergency basis. High school students interested in this occupation should consult college catalogs, then plan courses to be sure of satisfying admission requirements. High school courses should include mathematics, chemistry, physics, and biology. The American Society of Enology and Viticulture funds scholarships to students in these fields of study; additionally, the Department of Viticulture and Enology at the University of California at Davis has an extensive scholarship program. ADVANCEMENT Promotional opportunities for Enologists, apart from pay increases and added job responsibility, depend on the place of employment and experience in the industry. In larger wineries, Enologists may advance to higher level management positions such as production manager or vice-president. In smaller wineries Enologists occasionally become part owners, or are the original owners of the winery. Often, Enologists are hired by brewing or other food industry employers as a result of their winery experience. FINDING THE JOB Enologists find jobs through college placement offices or direct application to employers. Highly responsible positions requiring technical knowledge and production experience are usually filled by word of mouth or personal contacts within the industry. Both employers and applicants may place ads in the Wine Institute News, a widely read trade publication. Also, local wine country newspapers may advertise for winery positions that might be career ladders to the position of Enologist. ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California Davis, CA 95616 (916) 752-0380 http://www.wineserver.ucdavis.edu Wine Institute 425 Market Street San Francisco, CA 94105 (415) 512-0151 http://www.wineinstitute.org American Society of Enology and Viticulture P.O. Box 1855 Davis, CA 95617 (916) 753-3142 http://vitis-ir.com/ASEV RELATED OCCUPATIONAL GUIDES Chemists No. 22 OCCUPATIONAL CODE REFERENCES DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th Ed.,1991) Wine Maker 183.161-014 OES (Occupational Employment Statistics) System Industrial Production Managers 150140 Source: State of California, Employment Development Department, Labor Market Information Division, Information Services Group, (916) 262-2162.Note: This is NOT a job opening. The purpose of This California Occupational Guide is to provide you with useful information to help you make career decisions. If you are searching for a job, go to:
California Occupational Guides
California Employment Development Department >> Labor Market Information >> More Occupational Guides